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    What are Verbs?

    What are Verbs?The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any other type of word. Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action.
    But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state.
    A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe:
    • action (Ram plays football.)
    • state (Anthony seems kind.)
    There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although nouns can have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form. For example, the verb to work has five forms:
    • to work, work, works, worked, working
    Of course, this is still very few forms compared to some languages which may have thirty or more forms for a single verb.

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    Verb Classification
    We divide verbs into two broad classifications: 1. Helping Verbs (Auxiliary Verbs)

    Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:
    • I can.
    • People must.
    • The Earth will.
    Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That's because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.
    2. Main Verbs

    Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:
    • I teach.
    • People eat.
    • The Earth rotates.
    Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs.
    In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb.
    helping verb main verb
    John likes coffee.
    You lied to me.
    They are happy.
    The children are playing.
    We must go now.
    I do not want any.

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    Auxiliary Verbs (Helping verbs)
    Auxiliary or helping verbs are verbs that are used to help form verb phrases but cannot do so independently. There are four basic auxiliary verb groups:
    To Be
    To Have
    Modal Auxiliaries
    To Do

    :: To Be
    This auxiliary verb is used in the progressive tenses and passive voice:
    Progressive Tense:
    You are kicking.
    You were kicking.
    You have been kicking.
    Passive Voice:
    You are kicked.
    You were kicked.
    You have been kicked.
    :: To Have
    This verb is used as an auxiliary in the perfect tense:
    I have finished my paper.
    I had finished my paper.
    I have been finished with my paper.
    :: Modal Auxiliaries
    These auxiliaries affect the mood of the verb; that is, they determine whether a verb is a fact, desire, possibility, or command. They are most commonly used to represent degrees of freedom or severity.
    Most common modal auxiliaries:
    will, shall, can, may, need (to), dare, would, should, could, might, must, ought (to)
    Ability: I can run.
    Necessity: I must run.
    Obligation: I ought to run.
    Permission: I may run.
    :: To Do
    This verb is used when the main verb of the sentence requires aid of an auxiliary, but there is no other helping verb that will fit. It is often used in questions, negative or emphatic statements:
    Does he drive?
    He drives, doesn't he?
    Despite his flat tire he does drive.

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    Regular and Irregular Verbs
    Verbs are subdivided into two groups, regular verbs and irregular verbs, on the basis of how their past tense and past participles are formed. See below for tips on how to distinguish between them.
    :: Regular Verbs
    Most verbs are regular verbs. Regular verbs are those whose past tense and past participles are formed by adding a -d or an -ed to the end of the verb. "To roll" is a good example of a regular verb:
    roll, rolled, rolled
    Sometimes the last consonant must be doubled before adding the -ed ending. For example:
    plan, planned, planned
    :: Irregular Verbs
    There is no formula to predict how an irregular verb will form its past-tense and past-participle forms. There are over 250 irregular verbs in English. Although they do not follow a formula, there are some fairly common irregular forms. Some of these forms are:
    break, broke, broken
    cut, cut, cut
    run, ran, run
    meet, met, met
    come, came, come
    repay, repaid, repaid
    swim, swam, swum
    be was/were been
    :: Distinguishing Regular and Irregular Verbs
    Dictionaries are perhaps the most valuable tool one can use in distinguishing between regular and irregular verbs. If only one form of the verb is listed, the verb is regular. If the verb is irregular, the dictionary will list the principal parts of the other forms.

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    Verb Mood
    Verbs may be in one of three moods: indicative, imperative, or subjunctive. The indicative mood is used to make factual statements. The imperative mood makes a request or a command. The subjunctive mood can express a doubt or a wish using clauses beginning with "if" or "that"; it can also express a request, demand, or proposal in a clause beginning with "that."
    :: Indicative Mood
    : Present indicative: Jerry Seinfeld laughs on television.
    : Past indicative: Jerry laughed on television.
    : Future indicative: Jerry will laugh on television tomorrow.

    :: Imperative Mood
    Notice how much sharper the picture appears.
    Call her tomorrow.
    Take a seat!

    :: Subjunctive Mood
    He talks about grammar as if he were an expert. (Expresses doubt or an idea contrary to fact.)
    I wish that I were a fast runner. (Expresses a wish.)

    : Present Subjunctive
    The professor requests that the paper be turned in on time. (Expresses a request.)
    The rules require that each contestant submit an entry form. (Expresses a demand.)
    I suggest that the heat be reduced. (Illustrates a proposal.)

    : Auxiliary Verbs
    Auxiliary verbs "could," "would," and "should" might also express the subjunctive mood, especially when one expresses a condition contrary to fact.
    Examples:
    Past subjunctive
    Condition contrary to fact
    If the forecaster were correct, I would be prepared. If the forecaster could be correct, I would be prepared.
    If the company were to fly her, she would interview. If the company would fly her, she would interview.
    If Joe were to marry Ann, he would be happy. If Joe should marry Ann, he would be happy.
    Verbs that are often followed by "that" clauses with subjunctive verbs: announce, ask, as if, as though, demand, determine, indicate, insist, move, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, require, and suggest.

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    Transitive And Intransitive Verb
    Verbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by objects are called intransitive verbs. Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs, depending on the context:
    Direct Object
    I hope the Senators win the next game.
    No Direct Object
    Did we win?
    The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object, as in the following examples:
    INCOMPLETE
    The shelf holds.
    COMPLETE
    The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers.
    INCOMPLETE
    The committee named.
    COMPLETE
    The committee named a new chairperson.
    INCOMPLETE
    The child broke.
    COMPLETE
    The child broke the plate.
    An intransitive verb, on the other hand, cannot take a direct object:
    This plant has thrived on the south windowsill.
    The compound verb "has thrived" is intransitive and takes no direct object in this sentence. The prepositional phrase "on the south windowsill" acts as an adverb describing where the plant thrives.
    The sound of the choir carried through the cathedral.
    The verb "carried" is used intransitively in this sentence and takes no direct object. The prepositional phrase "through the cathedral" acts as an adverb describing where the sound carried.
    The train from Montreal arrived four hours late.
    The intransitive verb "arrived" takes no direct object, and the noun phrase "four hours late" acts as an adverb describing when the train arrived.
    Since the company was pleasant and the coffee both plentiful and good, we lingered in the restaurant for several hours.
    The verb "lingered" is used intransitively and takes no direct object. The prepositional phrase "in the restaurant for several hours" acts as an adverb modifying "lingered".
    The painting was hung on the south wall of the reception room.
    The compound verb "was hung" is used intransitively and the sentence has no direct object. The prepositional phrase "on the south wall of the reception room" acts as a adverb describing where the paint hung.
    Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on their context in the sentence. In the following pairs of sentences, the first sentence uses the verb transitively and the second uses the same verb intransitively:

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    Re: What are Verbs?


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    Re: What are Verbs?

    Hiểu biết thêm về các loại động từ trong tiếng Anh

    1. Intransitive verb: (Vi), nội động từ, là những động từ đã có đầy đủ ý nghĩa, nó không có danh từ bổ nghĩa cho nó. Nếu cần từ bổ nghĩa thì nó phải là một trạng từ hay là một trạng ngữ
    S + Vi
    S + Vi + A
    Ex:
    She's crying.
    She's crying loudly.
    She's crying in her room.

    .

    2. Transitive verb: (Vt), ngoại động từ, là những động từ đòi hỏi danh từ bổ nghĩa cho nó, để chỉ đối tượng mà hành động đó tác động lên, đối tượng này được gọi là Object trong tiếng Anh

    3. Monotransitive verb: là ngoại động từ chỉ có một tân ngữ

    S + Vt + O
    Ex: I love her

    Lưu ý: chỉ có ngoại động từ mới có câu bị động
    => She's loved by me

    4. Ditransitive verb: là ngoại động từ đòi hỏi 2 tân ngữ

    - Một tân ngữ được gọi là tân ngữ trực tiếp (direct O: Od), là đối tượng bị hành động tác động lên.
    - Một tân ngữ được gọi là tân ngữ gián tiếp (indirect O: Oi), thừa hưởng kết quả hành động mang lại.

    S + Vt + Oi + Od
    S + Vt + Od + to/ for + Oi

    Khi tân ngữ gián tiếp được để sau tân ngữ trực tiếp, thì trước Oi phải có giới từ to/ for (không có quy tắc), trong đó "to" phổ biến hơn "for"
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    Ex:
    I send Mary a post card.
    I send a post card to Mary.

    * Khi cả 2 tân ngữ đều là đại từ, ta nên dùng mẫu: S + Vt + Od + to/ for + Oi
    Ex: I send it to her

    - Một số động từ dùng với to: send, give, teach, write, carry, lend, do
    * S + Vt + Oi + Od
    => S + Vt + Od + to + Oi

    - Một số động từ dùng với for: buy, cook, keep, make, get, find, look for, do
    * S + Vt + Oi + Od
    => S + Vt + Od + for + Oi

    5. Complextransitive verb: ngoại động từ phức hợp, là ngoại động chỉ hành động tác động lên đối tượng khiến cho đối tượng thay đổi vị trí trong không gian, hoặc có/ mang thêm một tính chất mới

    S + Vt + O + A
    S + Vt + O + Co (object complement: adi/ N)

    Ex:
    I put the money into my pocket.
    You must keep your hand clean.

    I consider him as my friend.
    I consider him to be my friend.

    * Một số động từ thường gặp:

    - elect + sb + st: bầu ai làm gì
    Ex: We elect him president.

    - call/ name: đặt tên ai là gì
    Ex: I will name my daughter Nhung

    - keep + sb/ st + adj: giữ ai đó/ cái gì có tính chất
    Ex: You must keep your hand clean.

    - make + sb/ st + adj: làm cho ai/ cái gì có tính chất
    - regard + sb + as + N: coi ai, đánh giá ai như cái gì
    - find + sb/ st: nhận thấy ai/ cái gì có tính chất


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    Re: What are Verbs?

    CHAPTER 11. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

    1. Direct objects

    Most of the verbs examined so far have been in the Active Voice. When a verb is in the Active Voice, the subject of the verb refers to the person or thing performing the action described by the verb; and the object of the verb refers to the person or thing receiving the action described by the verb.

    In the following examples, the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
    e.g. He read the book.
    I did not see the balloon.
    They ate the potatoes quickly.
    She rode her bicycle along the sidewalk.
    Do we understand it?

    In these sentences, the verbs read, did see, ate, rode and do understand are in the Active Voice; and the words book, balloon, potatoes, bicycle and it are the objects of the verbs. These objects are said to be direct objects, because they refer to things which receive directly the actions described by the verbs.

    See Exercise 1.

    2. Lay and Lie, Raise and Rise, and Set and Sit

    Verbs which take an object are usually called transitive verbs. Verbs which do not take an object are usually called intransitive verbs.

    Many English verbs can be used either intransitively or transitively. For instance, in the sentence Most birds can fly, the verb to fly is intransitive, since it is used without an object. But in the sentence This pilot will fly the plane, the verb to fly is transitive, since it takes the object plane.

    However, some English verbs can be used only intransitively. A few pairs of verbs should be noted. The two verbs of each pair have similar meanings, but one of the verbs can take an object, and the other cannot. In the following table, the verbs labeled intransitive are those which cannot take an object.

    Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle
    Transitive: to lay laid laid
    Intransitive: to lie lay lain
    Transitive: to raise raised raised
    Intransitive: to rise rose risen
    Transitive: to set set set
    Intransitive: to sit sat sat


    Particular care must be taken not to confuse the verbs to lay and to lie, since, as shown above, the Simple Past of the verb to lie has the same form as the bare infinitive of the verb to lay.

    a. To Lay and To Lie
    To lay is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to lay. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
    e.g. I am laying the table.
    He laid a bet on the white horse.
    The hen has laid an egg.

    To lie is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to lie.
    e.g. She is lying on the sofa.
    We lay on the beach in the sun.
    He has lain in bed for a week.

    In these examples, it might appear that the words sofa, beach, and bed act as objects of the verb to lie. However, this is not the case.

    Not only verbs, but also prepositions have the ability to take objects. A few commonly used English prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to and with. Prepositions will be discussed in detail in a later chapter.

    In the examples above, sofa, and beach are objects of the preposition on; and bed is the object of the preposition in.

    See Exercise 2.

    b. To Raise and To Rise
    To raise is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to raise. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
    e.g. She is raising poodles.
    He raised the window.
    They have raised a crop of wheat.

    To rise is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to rise.
    e.g. The moon is rising in the east.
    They rose to the occasion.
    The temperature has risen by five degrees.

    In these sentences, the verbs have no objects. The words east, occasion and degrees are the objects of the prepositions in, to and by.

    See Exercise 3.

    c. To Set and To Sit
    To set is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to set. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type.
    e.g. They are setting a record.
    We set the jars on a shelf.
    Have you set the date for your trip?

    To sit is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to sit.
    e.g. They are sitting by the front steps.
    I sat at my desk for an hour.
    You have sat on the couch all afternoon.

    In these sentences, the verbs have no objects. The words steps, desk, and couch are the objects of the prepositions by, at and on.

    See Exercises 4 and 5.

    3. Indirect objects

    In addition to taking direct objects, some verbs also take indirect objects. In the following examples, the direct objects are printed in bold type, and the indirect objects are underlined.
    e.g. We gave the child a toy.
    I sent the man the information.

    In these examples, the words child and man are said to be the indirect objects of the verbs gave and sent. Indirect objects refer to things which receive indirectly the actions described by the verbs. In the above examples, the words toy and information are the direct objects of the verbs.

    Indirect objects usually refer to living things.

    It is possible for a sentence containing an indirect object to be rewritten by placing a preposition before the indirect object. When this is done, the original indirect object can be regarded either as the indirect object of the verb, or as the object of the preposition.

    For example, the sentence We gave the child a toy, can be rewritten as follows:
    We gave a toy to the child.
    In the rewritten sentence, child can be regarded either as the indirect object of the verb gave, or as the object of the preposition to.

    The following examples illustrate the position of the indirect object in a sentence. The direct object, toy, is printed in bold type, and the indirect object, child, is underlined.
    e.g. We gave the child a toy.
    We gave a toy to the child.

    When an indirect object is not preceded by a preposition, the indirect object must be placed before the direct object. Thus, in the sentence We gave the child a toy, the indirect object child is placed before the direct object toy.

    However, when an indirect object is preceded by a preposition, the indirect object must be placed after the direct object. In the sentence We gave a toy to the child, the indirect object child is preceded by the preposition to. Therefore, the indirect object, child is placed after the direct object toy.

    The object which is placed last in a sentence tends to receive greater emphasis than the object which is placed first. Thus, the word order of a sentence can be varied in order to give greater emphasis to one object or the other. For instance, in the sentence We lent the teacher a book, the direct object book is slightly emphasized. However, in the sentence We lent a book to the teacher, the indirect object teacher is emphasized.

    See Exercises 6 and 7.

    A few English verbs, such as to describe, to distribute, to explain and to say, can take an indirect object only when the indirect object is preceded by a preposition. In the following examples, the direct objects are printed in bold type, and the indirect objects are underlined.
    e.g. He described his experiences to the reporters.
    They distributed the leaflets to their friends.
    We explained the situation to the participants.
    She said something to her teacher.

    These verbs cannot take an indirect object which immediately follows the verb. One reason for this may be to avoid creating sentences which are ambiguous or confusing. For instance, a sentence which began with the words He described the reporters... would create the impression that it was the reporters who were being described. When the reporters is preceded by the preposition to, there is no ambiguity.

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