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Chủ đề: Linking words

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  1. #1
    Moderator Clementine's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    May 2010
    Bài viết
    470

    Linking words

    Linking words help you to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can follow your ideas.

    Giving examples (Cho ví dụ)

    For example
    For instance
    Namely

    The most common way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance.
    Namely refers to something by name.
    "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."

    Adding information (Thêm thông tin)

    And
    In addition
    As well as
    Also
    Too
    Furthermore
    Moreover
    Apart from
    In addition to
    Besides

    Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and.
    "We discussed training, education and the budget."
    Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing."
    You can use also with not only to give emphasis.
    "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition."
    We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this…
    As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.
    "As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition."
    "We are interested in costs as well as the competition."
    Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well.
    "They were concerned too."
    "I, too, was concerned."
    Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to.
    "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
    "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
    Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making.
    "Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."

    Summarising (tóm tắt)

    In short
    In brief
    In summary
    To summarise
    In a nutshell
    To conclude
    In conclusion


    We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.

    Sequencing ideas (sắp xếp ý)

    The former, … the latter
    Firstly, secondly, finally
    The first point is
    Lastly
    The following

    The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points.
    "Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term."
    Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.
    It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on.
    The following is a good way of starting a list.
    "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."

    Giving a reason (Đưa ra lí do)

    Due to / due to the fact that
    Owing to / owing to the fact that
    Because
    Because of
    Since
    As

    Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun.
    "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%."
    "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."
    If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that.
    "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25."
    "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders."
    Because / because of
    Because of is followed by a noun.
    "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."
    Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was raining, the match was postponed."
    "We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive."
    Since / as
    Since and as mean because.
    "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
    "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

    Giving a result (Đưa ra kết quả)


    Therefore
    So
    Consequently
    This means that
    As a result

    Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way.
    "The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff."
    So is more informal.

    Contrasting ideas (ý trái ngược/ ý tương phản)

    But
    However
    Although / even though
    Despite / despite the fact that
    In spite of / in spite of the fact that
    Nevertheless
    Nonetheless
    While
    Whereas
    Unlike
    In theory… in practice…

    But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence.
    "He works hard, but he doesn't earn much."
    "He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."
    Although, despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence.
    "Although it was cold, she went out in shorts."
    "In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."
    Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. They must be followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use the fact that.
    "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees."
    Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway.
    "The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
    "The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."
    While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other.
    "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown."
    "Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down."
    "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."
    In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result.
    "In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."
    Lần sửa cuối bởi Clementine, ngày 08-12-2011 lúc 04:46 PM.

  2. #2
    Vượt ngàn trùng sóng vntruongson's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Aug 2008
    Bài viết
    1,704

    Re: Linking words


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