+ Trả lời Chủ đề

Chủ đề: Topic Vocabulary

Kết quả 1 đến 6 của 6
  1. #1
    Dạn dày sương gió xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Sep 2008
    Bài viết
    691
    Rep Power
    15

    Topic Vocabulary



    university education

    Introduction


    Education is one of the key topics for IELTS. You will almost certainly need it in part 1 of the speaking module and it is also a common essay topic. You will find here a list of helpful vocabulary to improve your performance in those two papers.

    How to learn this vocabulary


    Whatever you do, don’t just sit down and learn the list. You need to be able to use the language for yourself. How can you do this:
    • choose the language that you need – make it personal to you
    • note what other words it is used with
    • note any grammar problems
    • remember pronunciation
    • practice using it

    A warning – local variations

    This list of vocabulary comes from the British educational system. Different countries and cultures frequently use their own terminology. For instance, in American English it is quite possible to describe university as “college” or “school”. These words mean something quite different in British English
    Graduate

    notes
    • it can replace the word “student”
    • note the different prepositions “of a university” and “from university” and “in a subject”
    • graduate is quite formal so in speaking you could use “I left university” instead
    • a fresher is a first year student, Americans use “freshman”
    Level of degrees


    notes
    • if you study a humanities subject, you get a BA for your first degree and an MA for your master’s
    • if you study science, you get a BSc for your first degree and an MSc for your master’s
    Types of qualifications



    notes and common mistakes
    • you can only receive a degree for a full course at university; do not use “diploma” and “certificate” to mean degree
    • to confuse you, the piece of paper you receive when you graduate is a certificate
    Types of education



    notes

    • if you receive a degree from a university, you are in higher education
    • if you receive a diploma or certificate, you are in further education
    Types of course



    Institutions




    notes


    Be particularly careful with “college” and “school” which do not mean the same as “university” in British English


    Forms of learning



    notes and common mistakes

    • a lecturer gives or delivers a lecture and is sometimes used as a rank of university teacher
    • a tutor is in charge of a seminar or tutorial
    • we don’t use “class” or “lesson” in university education (although Americans do use “class”)
    Finance



    notes

    • a scholarship is won for academic merit
    • typically a grant is awarded either for a particular project or to allow a student to follow a course
    Types of writing


    Studying and lecture words


    notes
    • you review your notes, but revise for an exam
    • you concentrate in a lecture but on a subject
    Some informal “university” verbs – useful in speaking




    Lần sửa cuối bởi xathutreonhanhdudu, ngày 30-12-2011 lúc 09:17 AM.

  2. #2
    Dạn dày sương gió xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Sep 2008
    Bài viết
    691
    Rep Power
    15

    Re: Topic Vocabulary

    Crime vocabulary

    One of the core topics for IELTS is crime and justice. It is a tricky area as there are a number of quite technical words that need to be learnt. So what you will find here is not so much as a list of words, but more useful phrases that you can use in context. You will also find language notes and exercises to help you use this language.



    Types of crime

    Rather than learn lists of very specific words for names of individual crimes, it is almost certainly more useful to learn phrases that describe different categories of crime:

    Key words

    Another key word here is “offence” which is a close synonym for crime. It is a slightly broader word as it includes behaviour that is not necessarily criminal. You can also use the phrase “criminal behaviour“.

    Punishments


    Key words/ideas

    There is a common saying that “the punishment should fit the crime“. If you wish to practise this vocabulary, a standard exercise is to look at the crimes and decide what punishment you think they should receive.

    In some countries, there is still capital punishment/the death penalty, while this is banned in other countries. An occasional IELTS essay topic is to discuss the merits of capital punishment. What are the arguments for and against it?


    Another topic you need to consider is crime prevention. Is it more effective to send someone to prison or to prevent the crime in the first place? Linked into this idea is whether prison sentences act as a deterrent to criminals.
    The justice process

    The details of this will vary from the country to country, but here are some of the main ideas:

    Useful phrases


  3. #3
    Thích bay ngongvang will become famous soon enough ngongvang's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Mar 2010
    Bài viết
    77
    Rep Power
    10

    Re: Topic Vocabulary

    ocabulary and ideas to discuss the environment

    This lesson helps you out with some vocabulary and ideas to discuss one of the key IELTS topics: the environment. The best way to learn vocabulary is in context, so in addition to useful lists of words I have recorded 4 sample part 3 speaking answers using some of this vocabulary. This way you can understand how to use it in practice. You will also find the vocabulary to download and some exercises to practise it at the bottom of the page.

    The vocabulary

    Environmental problems


    The natural world


    Pollution


    Energy



    Useful verbs


    The ideas

    In this section, you will find 4 sample part 3 speakings (slightly long) to listen and read. I have highlighted the environmental vocabulary.
    Our effect on the natural world

    When we’re the discussing the environment, it’s important not to forget that our actions have an impact not only on us but on the natural world and other species. So, for example, certain species are now endangered because of our actions. it’s not just because of hunting, but because we have destroyed their natural habitats: they do not enough food or anywhere to live. If we carry on in this way, the biodiversity of the planet is under threat.
    Pollution

    I would have said that one of the most serious environmental problems today is of course pollution. It’s a very pressing green issue and if you travel to any of the large cities in China, for example, you’ll find that there is very bad air pollution and there is a layer of smog hanging over the cities. It’s just air pollution, there is also water pollution. in many parts of the world, the quality of the water is not good because rivers have been contaminated by all sorts of industrial waste, by chemicals and fertilisers. And what we need to do is to recycle our waste and take care of the planet and try use renewable resources where we possibly can.
    Energy

    Another extremely important green issue is of course energy. There are two points to be made here. The first point is that the way we use energy is causing harm to the environment. Most of us get energy in the form of electricity. This electricity is produced by power stations. These power stations emit all sorts of dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide up into the atmosphere. And these gases cause acid rain which does harm to our ecosystem and environment. the second point to make about energy is we need to make sure that we are using energy in a sustainable way. There is a limit to the Earth’s natural resources and there is a danger that we use so much energy the Earth is no longer going to be able to provide us with sufficient coal and fossil fuels. What we need to do is look for more renewable sources of energy such as wind or perhaps solar energy from the sun.
    Global warming

    What’s the greatest threat to the Earth today? I’d have to say it’s probably a combination of global warming and the greenhouse effect. I don’t understand all the science behind it, but I understand it’s to do with the build up of gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which means that the planet is slowly but steadily getting warmer. and one of the results of this is that the polar icecap is melting and the levels of the oceans are rising. And it’s caused I understand by deforestation, particularly of rainforests and particularly in the Amazonian Basin. And what this means is that we may be doing irreparable harm to the planet and the future of the planet for our children and our children’s children looks really rather bleak.




  4. #4
    Dạn dày sương gió xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Sep 2008
    Bài viết
    691
    Rep Power
    15

    Re: Topic Vocabulary

    Employment vocabulary and exercises

    One of the key topics in IELTS is work and employment. To help you out, here is a selection of useful words and phrases to discuss the topic. To help you understand and practise these words, you will also find examples of how the words are used and a series of exercises.
    Employ – an exercise in word formation

    If you want to learn words well, it is important to learn different forms of them. Employ is one of the key words and it has several different forms – you need to able to use them all if you want to write flexibly.
    Job and work

    Sometimes the trickiest words are very common words. You definitely need to be able to use both these words. One way to how to use them correctly is to learn phrases.
    Career words

    These words should come in useful when describing career paths.
    Companies


    Money words

    There are a variety of different words we use to describe money and work.
    Adjectives to describe jobs


  5. #5
    Dạn dày sương gió xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Sep 2008
    Bài viết
    691
    Rep Power
    15

    Re: Topic Vocabulary

    Advertising vocabulary and exercises

    This lesson helps you with vocabulary and ideas for one of the more tricky topics – advertising. In addition to providing you with a guide to some useful words and phrases, I also give you a series of exercises to show you how you might use the words.
    Advert, advertisement or ad?

    All these forms of the words are correct but adis mostly used in spoken English only. You should also be aware of a common pronunciation problem:
    • advert
    • advertise
    • advertisement
    This means that you make an “iss” sound when say advertisement.This is a very common mistake and one way to avoid it is to say and write advert.
    Different forms of advertising


    Adjectives to describe advertising


    Other related words


  6. #6
    Dạn dày sương gió xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu is just really nice xathutreonhanhdudu's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Sep 2008
    Bài viết
    691
    Rep Power
    15

    Re: Topic Vocabulary

    Business vocabulary for IELTS

    This is the next in my series of lessons on topic vocabulary for IELTS – this time featuring language to write about business. This is quite a technical area and I concentrate on showing you how to use some of the most common words and phrases. This means I do not simply give you lists of words and phrases but show you different forms of the words and some common collocations. There are also a number of different exercises for you to practise these words in context.

    Compete – an example of word formation

    A top tip is not to learn one word at a time but to learn the whole family of words. This way you learn 3/4 words at a time. That’s good. You can also use words much more flexibly. That’s even better. See h.ow this works with the word compete – a key business concept

    Market – an exercise in collocations

    Another top tip is to learn phrases (or collocations) when you learn words. If you want to be able to use words for yourself, you need to know what other words it is normally used with. You should find that if you do this, it helps you understand the meaning of words far better than learning any dictionary definition.

    Company and business

    There are a variety words to describe a business in English:

    Notes

    Be careful with the word business. When we use it uncountably, it means the idea – to do business. If, however, we use it countably it describes a company like entity – a family business.
    A company is used properly to describe a body that is a legal entity. Many businesses, particularly smaller businesses, are not legal entities – hence the term small businesses.
    Corporation is used to describe larger companies and is more American than British.
    The supply chain – products and services

    You should also be familiar with the most common types of companies. Products and services reach the consumer through a supply chain. Put (very) simply products and services reach the consumer through a chain of supply. Manufactures use raw materials to produce products which are supplied to wholesalers who store those products and sell them to retailers (shops) where we buy them.

    Customers, consumers and clients

    This is a tricky one. It can be very difficult to distinguish between consumers, customers and clients. Typically, (and this not a rule) you find customers buying things in shops,but clients receive services. Consumer is a more general term and is often used when thinking more abstractly or legally (consumer rights).
    Notes

    There are of course many other more technical words we use here: patients in hospitals and passengers in transport for example.
    Finance

    There are many, many technical terms here. This is a small selection of the more general use words you should be comfortable using.
    Notes

    Pay careful attention to collocations in this area. In particular, think about “common” words such as reduce, increase, major, minor, high and low
    People in businesses

    In some ways, the key words here are employ, employment, employer and employee. These are a few more variations with some useful collocations.

    Money and employment

    Business is (partly at least) about individuals making money. These are some of the less technical words you should be familiar with.



    notes


    salary and wage have the same essential meaning. Typically, skilled workers receive a salary and unskilled worked a wage.

+ Trả lời Chủ đề
Quyền viết bài
  • Bạn Không thể gửi Chủ đề mới
  • Bạn Không thể Gửi trả lời
  • Bạn Không thể Gửi file đính kèm
  • Bạn Không thể Sửa bài viết của mình